Upstream open reading frames cause widespread reduction of protein expression and are polymorphic among humans

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 5;106(18):7507-12. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0810916106. Epub 2009 Apr 16.


Upstream ORFs (uORFs) are mRNA elements defined by a start codon in the 5' UTR that is out-of-frame with the main coding sequence. Although uORFs are present in approximately half of human and mouse transcripts, no study has investigated their global impact on protein expression. Here, we report that uORFs correlate with significantly reduced protein expression of the downstream ORF, based on analysis of 11,649 matched mRNA and protein measurements from 4 published mammalian studies. Using reporter constructs to test 25 selected uORFs, we estimate that uORFs typically reduce protein expression by 30-80%, with a modest impact on mRNA levels. We additionally identify polymorphisms that alter uORF presence in 509 human genes. Finally, we report that 5 uORF-altering mutations, detected within genes previously linked to human diseases, dramatically silence expression of the downstream protein. Together, our results suggest that uORFs influence the protein expression of thousands of mammalian genes and that variation in these elements can influence human phenotype and disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • 5' Untranslated Regions / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Disease / genetics
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Open Reading Frames*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Protein Biosynthesis / genetics*


  • 5' Untranslated Regions