Increased expression of androgen receptor coregulator MAGE-11 in prostate cancer by DNA hypomethylation and cyclic AMP

Mol Cancer Res. 2009 Apr;7(4):523-35. doi: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0400.


Melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) of the MAGE family of cancer germ-line antigens increases androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity through its interaction with the AR NH(2)-terminal FXXLF motif. The present study investigated the regulatory mechanisms that control MAGE-11 expression during androgen deprivation therapy and prostate cancer progression. Studies include the CWR22 xenograft model of human prostate cancer, clinical specimens of benign and malignant prostate, and prostate cancer cell lines. MAGE-11 mRNA levels increased 100- to 1,500-fold during androgen deprivation therapy and prostate cancer progression, with highest levels in the castration-recurrent CWR22 xenograft and clinical specimens of castration-recurrent prostate cancer. Pyrosequencing of genomic DNA from prostate cancer specimens and cell lines indicated the increase in MAGE-11 resulted from DNA hypomethylation of a CpG island in the 5' promoter of the MAGE-11 gene. Sodium bisulfite sequencing of genomic DNA from benign and malignant prostate tumors and prostate cancer cell lines revealed DNA hypomethylation at individual CpG sites at the transcription start site were most critical for MAGE-11 expression. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) also increased MAGE-11 expression and AR transcriptional activity in prostate cancer cell lines. However, cAMP did not alter DNA methylation of the promoter and its effects were inhibited by extensive DNA methylation in the MAGE-11 promoter region. Increased expression of the AR coregulator MAGE-11 through promoter DNA hypomethylation and cAMP provides a novel mechanism for increased AR signaling in castration-recurrent prostate cancer.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Androgens / pharmacology
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics*
  • Castration
  • CpG Islands / genetics
  • Cyclic AMP / pharmacology*
  • DNA Methylation*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Prostatectomy
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics*
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Transplantation, Heterologous


  • AR protein, human
  • Androgens
  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • MAGEA11 protein, human
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • Cyclic AMP