Highly uniform CdTe nanowires with a very high aspect ratio of approximately 1000 and an average diameter of 12 nm can be conveniently synthesized using ultrathin Te nanowires as templates via a low-temperature hydrothermal process. Several other interesting CdTe nanostructures, including tadpolelike, chainlike, and branched nanostructures, can also be fabricated by adjusting precursor concentrations and reaction temperature. The formation mechanism of uniform CdTe nanowires using highly reactive ultrathin Te nanowires as template has been discussed. The synthesized uniform CdTe nanowires can be well-dispersed in water or ethanol, and they may find potential applications in the fields of photovoltaics, biological sensors, and nanoscale electronics. The present templating method can also be extended to synthesize other one-dimensional telluride nanostructures such as PbTe nanowires with uniform diameter and high aspect ratios.