A primer for morpholino use in zebrafish

Zebrafish. 2009 Mar;6(1):69-77. doi: 10.1089/zeb.2008.0555.


Morpholino oligonucleotides are the most common anti-sense "knockdown" technique used in zebrafish (Danio rerio). This review discusses common practices for the design, preparation, and deployment of morpholinos in this vertebrate model system. Off-targeting effects of morpholinos are discussed as well as method to minimize this potentially confounding variable via co-injection of a tP53-targeting morpholino. Finally, new uses of morpholinos are summarized and contextualized with respect to the complementary, DNA-based knockout technologies recently developed for zebrafish.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques*
  • Oligonucleotides / genetics*
  • Zebrafish / genetics*


  • Oligonucleotides