Bestrophin-1 is an integral membrane protein, encoded by the BEST1 gene, which is located in the basolateral membrane of the retinal pigment epithelium. The bestrophin-1 protein forms a Ca(2+) activated Cl(-) channel and is involved in the regulation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels. In addition, bestrophin-1 appears to play a role in ocular development. Over 120 different human BEST1 mutations have been described to date, associated with a broad range of ocular phenotypes. The purpose of this review is to describe this spectrum of phenotypes, which includes Best vitelliform macular dystrophy and adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy, autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy, the MRCS (microcornea, rod-cone dystrophy, cataract, posterior staphyloma) syndrome, and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy. The genotype-phenotype correlations that are observed in association with BEST1 mutations are discussed. In addition, in vitro studies and animal models that clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms are reviewed.