Mitochondria are organelles of elaborate structure that in addition to supplying cellular energy, have significant roles in calcium homeostasis and apoptosis. Failure to maintain mitochondrial dynamics results in neurodegenerative diseases and neuromuscular pathologies. The Miro GTPases, which constitute a unique subgroup of the Ras superfamily, have emerged as essential regulators of mitochondrial morphogenesis and trafficking along microtubules. Miro GTPases function as calcium-dependent sensors in the control of mitochondrial motility. Increased awareness of the biological function of Miro GTPases can contribute to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying diseases caused by deregulated mitochondrial dynamics.