Prostate cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death in men of the Western World. The role of FGFR3 and its abnormalities in prostate cancer are not known. FGFR3 mutations have been reported in some human tumors. Few studies have analyzed the mutations of FGFR3 in prostate tumors, and no mutations have been previously reported. Prevalence of FGFR3 somatic mutations was investigated in a series of prostate tumors. The presence of other tumors in these patients, including urothelial, skin, colon, and lung neoplasms, was recorded. Mutational analysis of exons 7, 10, and 15 of FGFR3 revealed 9 mutations in the 112 prostate tumors studied (8%). Most of them consisted of the missense change S249C. The prevalence of mutations in tumors with combined Gleason score=6 is 18% (8/45) compared to 3% (1/36) for tumors with grade=7, and 0% (0/31) for those with grade >or=8 and metastases (P=0.007). The frequency of FGFR3 mutations in autopsy and biopsy samples was 6 and 9%, respectively. The prevalence of FGFR3 mutations in prostate tumors from patients with only prostate cancer was 2% compared to 23% in prostate tumors from patients with other associated neoplasms (P=0.001). This is the first report of molecular changes of FGFR3 in prostate cancer. This gene does not seem to be central to the pathogenesis of prostate cancer, but it is significantly associated with a subgroup of low-grade prostate tumors, and with the finding of other tumors, mainly arising in bladder and skin.