Effect of Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice on the metabolic activation and detoxication of carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethylamine in rat liver

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 10;57(11):5071-7. doi: 10.1021/jf803973y.


Chokeberry is a rich source of polyphenols, which may counteract the action of chemical carcinogens. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chokeberry juice alone or in combination with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) on phase I and phase II enzymes and DNA damage in rat liver. The forced feeding with chokeberry juice alone decreased the activities of enzymatic markers of cytochrome P450, CYP1A1 and 1A2. NDEA treatment also decreased the activity of CYP2E1 but enhanced the activity of CYP2B. Pretreatment with chokeberry juice further reduced the activity of these enzymes. Modulation of P450 enzyme activities was accompanied by the changes in the relevant proteins levels. Phase II enzymes were increased in all groups of animals tested. Chokeberry juice augmented DNA damage and aggravated the effect of NDEA. These results indicate that chokeberry may protect against liver damage; however, in combination with chemical carcinogens it might enhance their effect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Beverages / analysis*
  • Biotransformation
  • Carcinogens / pharmacokinetics*
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / metabolism
  • DNA Damage / drug effects
  • Diethylnitrosamine / pharmacokinetics*
  • Diethylnitrosamine / toxicity
  • Inactivation, Metabolic
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Photinia / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Random Allocation
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar


  • Carcinogens
  • Plant Extracts
  • Diethylnitrosamine
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System