Background: Noninvasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) have a favorable prognosis; however, the prognosis of invasive intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma (invasive IPMC) is poor. Identification of predictive factors for differentiating IPMC from benign IPMNs would assist in providing appropriate treatment.
Design: Retrospective study (1999-2006).
Setting: Wakayama Medical University Hospital, Wakayama, Japan.
Patients: Fifty-four patients with IPMN who underwent surgery; histologic examination showed benign adenomas in 29, carcinoma in situ in 14, and invasive carcinoma in 11 patients.
Main outcome measures: Clinical data, preoperative imaging findings, cytologic findings, tumor markers in serum and pancreatic juice, and overall survival.
Results: Age of 70 years or older, presence of mural nodules, mural nodule size of 5 mm or larger, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level in pancreatic juice of 110 ng/mL or higher (as obtained by preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography) were predictive of a malignant IPMN by univariate analysis, and a CEA level of 110 ng/mL or higher in pancreatic juice was identified as the only independent predictive factor for the malignant entity. The presence of jaundice or body weight loss, main pancreatic duct type, presence of mural nodules, mural nodule size of 5 mm or larger, and CEA level in the pancreatic juice of 110 ng/mL or higher were all predictive of invasive IPMCs by univariate analysis.
Conclusion: Measurement of the CEA level in pancreatic juice should be considered in the diagnosis of IPMC.