Mast cells (MCs) are important effector cells in host defense against bacteria. In the course of a bacterial infection, MCs can be activated by various mechanisms, i.e. bacterial toxins, endogenously produced infection-associated peptides or via complement receptors, fimbrial adhesion molecules and toll-like receptors (TLRs). While some of these mechanisms are well established, the effects of TLR2 ligand-driven MC activation are far less understood. Here, we show that murine mature connective tissue-type MCs, but not immature bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells, express significant amounts of full length TLR2 on their surface. Activation by various TLR2 ligands only induces the selective release of cytokines in peritoneum-derived cultured mast cells (PCMCs) with preferential secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 > IL-17 > IFN-gamma TNF > IL-1 > GM-CSF) upon stimulation with lipoteichoic acid (LTA). This response is much lower in PCMCs stimulated with the TLR2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), which most prominently triggers the release of the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10. Furthermore, only LTA but not MALP-2 induces prostaglandin D2 secretion which is again restricted to the mature MC phenotype. These findings suggest that TLR2 ligand-mediated activation of mature MCs, i.e. tissue-residing cells, which most likely occurs during infection, can selectively raise a potent inflammatory or anti-inflammatory response, depending on TLRs which are engaged.