Objective: To describe an outbreak of imipenem-resistant metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enzyme type bla, by horizontal transmission in patients admitted to a mixed adult ICU.
Methods: A case-control study was carried out, including 47 patients (cases) and 122 patients (control) admitted to the mixed ICU of a university hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil from November 2003 to July 2005. The infection site, risk factors, mortality, antibiotic susceptibility, metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) production, enzyme type, and clonal diversity were analyzed.
Results: A temporal/spatial relationship was detected in most patients (94%), overall mortality was 55.3%, and pneumonia was the predominant infection (85%). The majority of isolates (95%) were resistant to imipenem and other antibiotics, except for polymyxin, and showed MBL production (76.7%). Only bla SPM-1 (33%) was identified in the 15 specimens analyzed. In addition, 4 clones were identified, with a predominance of clone A (61.5%) and B (23.1%). On multivariate analysis, advanced age, mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, and previous imipenem use were significant risk factors for imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infection.
Conclusions: Clonal dissemination of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa strains with a spatial/temporal relationship disclosed problems in the practice of hospital infection control, low adherence to hand hygiene, and empirical antibiotic use.