We report the development of a new interspecific cotton recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 140 lines deriving from an interspecific cross between Gossypium hirsutum (Gh) and G. barbadense (Gb), using the same two parents that have served for the construction of a BC(1) map and for the marker-assisted backcross selection program underway at CIRAD. Two marker systems, microsatellites and AFLPs, were used. An important feature of the RIL population was its marked segregation distortion with a genome-wide bias to Gh alleles (parental genome ratio is 71/29). The RIL map displays an excellent colinearity with the BC(1) map, although it is severely contracted in terms of map size. Existence of 255 loci in common (between 6 and 14 per chromosome) allowed the integration of the two data sets. A consensus BC(1)-RIL map based upon 215 individuals (75 BC1 + 140 RIL) was built. It consisted of 1,745 loci, spanned 3,637 cM, intermediate between the sizes of the two component maps, and constituted a solid framework to cross align cotton maps using common markers. The new RIL population will be further exploited for fiber property QTL mapping and eQTL mapping.