Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of real-time radial k-t sensitivity encoding (SENSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for biventricular volumetric assessment during exercise.
Materials and methods: In all, 12 healthy young adults underwent MRI at rest and during supine exercise at three different workload intensities. Biventricular volumes and function were assessed with 1) a radial k-t SENSE real-time sequence and 2) a scanner vendor supplied (standard) real-time sequence. Global image quality, motion fidelity, and agreement in right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV) as a surrogate measure for accuracy were assessed. Exercise MR was repeated within 1 month for assessment of reproducibility.
Results: Imaging scores were superior for radial real-time k-t SENSE images (P < 0.001). Agreement in RV and LV SV during exercise was better with radial k-t real-time (SD of difference +/-3.43 vs. +/-8.97 mL; P < 0.001). Agreement in cardiac output (CO) in the same subject at two different imaging sessions was better for radial k-t SENSE. This was significant for the CO calculated for the RV (SD of difference +/-0.6 vs. +/-0.95 L/min; P = 0.01) and LV (+/-0.45 vs. +/-0.92 L/min; P < 0.001).
Conclusion: Radial k-t SENSE real-time imaging represents a feasible and reproducible imaging technique for biventricular assessment during exercise.