Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACACA) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids (FA) by converting acetyl-CoA into malonyl-CoA. In pigs, the ACACA gene maps to a chromosome 12 QTL with important effects on FA composition. In the present study, we have sequenced the coding region of the pig ACACA gene in 15 pigs, identifying 21 polymorphic sites that were either synonymous or non-coding. Ten of these SNPs segregated in a Duroc commercial population (n = 350) for which lipid metabolism and meat and carcass quality trait records were available. Significant associations were found between two linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (c.4899G>A and c.5196T>C) and percentages of carcass lean, intramuscular fat, monounsaturated, saturated (myristic, palmitic and stearic) and polyunsaturated (linoleic) FAs in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle, along with serum HDL-cholesterol concentration. The most important allele substitution effects were observed for the polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio (13-21% of the phenotypic mean) as well as for the percentages of omega-6 and polyunsaturated FAs, especially linoleic acid (7-16% of the phenotypic mean). These results suggest the existence of a causal mutation, mapping to the chromosomal region containing the pig ACACA gene, with marked effects on FA composition of meat.