Predictors of insulin regimens and impact on outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study

J Pediatr. 2009 Aug;155(2):183-9.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.01.063. Epub 2009 Apr 24.


Objectives: To describe the insulin regimens used to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in youth in the United States, to explore factors related to insulin regimen, and to describe the associations between insulin regimen and clinical outcomes, particularly glycemic control.

Study design: A total of 2743 subjects participated in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study, an observational population-based study of youth diagnosed with T1DM, conducted at 6 centers. Data collected during a study visit included clinical and sociodemographic information, body mass index, laboratory measures, and insulin regimen.

Results: Sociodemographic characteristics were associated with insulin regimen. Insulin pump therapy was more frequently used by older youth, females, non-Hispanic whites, and families with higher income and education (P = .02 for females, P < .001 for others). Insulin pump use was associated with the lowest hemoglobin A1C levels in all age groups. A1C levels were >7.5% in >70% of adolescents, regardless of regimen.

Conclusions: Youth using insulin pumps had the lowest A1C; A1C was unacceptably high in adolescents. There is a need to more fully assess and understand factors associated with insulin regimens recommended by providers and the influence of race/ethnicity, education, and socioeconomic status on these treatment recommendations and to develop more effective treatment strategies, particularly for adolescents.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / statistics & numerical data
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Income
  • Infusion Pumps, Implantable
  • Injections
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Sex Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • White People


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human