Background: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases with age; however, the prognostic significance in older people is uncertain. This study aims to determine the association of CKD with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling older people 75 years and older.
Study design: Cohort study of people 75 years and older recruited in 1994 to 1999 to 1 arm of a trial of multidimensional health assessment with mortality follow-up.
Setting & participants: 53 general practices in Great Britain. 15,336 (73%) of those eligible participated. 13,177 (86%) had serum creatinine measured at baseline.
Main factor: Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).
Outcomes: All-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Measurements: eGFR derived from serum creatinine level using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in milliliters per minute per 1.73 m(2); dipstick proteinuria. Mortality by linkage to national death registration and death certification.
Results: After a median follow-up of 7.3 years (interquartile range, 5.0), 7,633 (58%) had died, 42% of cardiovascular causes. In the first 2 years of follow-up, adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in eGFR bands of 45 to 59, 30 to 44, and less than 30 compared with eGFR greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 1.37), 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 2.28), and 3.87 (95% confidence interval, 2.78 to 5.38) in men and 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 1.40), 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.68), and 2.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.68 to 3.56) in women, respectively. Hazard ratios were greater for cardiovascular mortality and lower after 2 years. Dipstick proteinuria was independently associated with all-cause, but not cardiovascular, mortality risk in both sexes.
Limitations: Single serum creatinine measurement, no calibration of serum creatinine, MDRD Study equation not validated in older people.
Conclusion: As kidney function decreases, there is a graded and independent increase in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk in older people 75 years and older, especially in men and those with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Dipstick proteinuria did not add to cardiovascular mortality risk in this elderly population. In older people, identification and management of CKD should prioritize the smaller numbers with more severe CKD.