Bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS): a unique craniosynostosis syndrome or predictable craniofacial phenotype?

Am J Med Genet A. 2009 May;149A(5):1024-32. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32782.


Multisutural craniosynostosis that includes bilateral lambdoid and sagittal synostosis (BLSS) results in a very characteristic head shape with frontal bossing, turribrachycephaly, biparietal narrowing, occipital concavity, and inferior displacement of the ears. This entity has been reported both in the genetics literature as craniofacial dyssynostosis and in the surgical literature as "Mercedes Benz" syndrome. Craniofacial dyssynostosis was first described in 1976 by Dr. Neuhauser when he presented a series of seven patients with synostosis of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures, short stature, and developmental delay. Over the past 30 years nine additional patients with craniofacial dyssynostosis have been reported in the literature adding to the growing evidence for a distinct craniosynostosis syndrome. The term "Mercedes Benz" syndrome was coined by Moore et al. in 1998 due to the characteristic appearance of the fused sutures on three-dimensional CT imaging. In contrast to the aforementioned reported cases of craniofacial dyssynostosis, all three patients had normal development. Recently, there have been several case reports of patients with BLSS and distinct chromosomal anomalies. These findings suggest that BLSS is a heterogeneous disorder perhaps with syndromic, chromosomal, and isolated forms. In this manuscript we will present the largest series of patients with BLSS and review clinical, CT, and molecular findings.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Craniosynostoses / diagnosis*
  • Craniosynostoses / diagnostic imaging
  • Craniosynostoses / genetics
  • Face / abnormalities*
  • Face / diagnostic imaging
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phenotype
  • Radiography
  • Skull / abnormalities*
  • Skull / diagnostic imaging
  • Syndrome