Objective: To further define the metabolic profiles of second-generation antipsychotics during the treatment of young patients with early psychosis, with a view to better inform prescribing clinicians.
Method: Weight, body mass index (BMI), glucose, and serum lipids were measured in the 52-week Comparison of Atypicals for First Episode (CAFE) study, in which olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone were evaluated, and whose primary outcomes have been reported elsewhere. These metabolic data were analyzed using a mixed random coefficients model for continuous longitudinal measures and a logistic regression model for categorical responses.
Results: Of the 400 patients recruited, 31% were overweight and 18% were obese at baseline, and 17 (4.3%) patients met criteria for metabolic syndrome. After 12 and 52 weeks of treatment, weight gain >or=7% from baseline was reported in 29.2% and 50.0% of quetiapine-treated patients, 59.8% and 80.0% of olanzapine-treated patients, and 32.5% and 57.6% of risperidone-treated patients, respectively. Weight gain after 12 and 52 weeks of treatment was estimated as [Least Squares Mean (SE)] 15.6 (+/-1.1) and 24.2 (+/-1.9) lb for olanzapine, 8.6 (+/-1.1) and 14.0 (+/-1.9) lb with risperidone and 7.9 (+/-1.1) and 12.1 (+/-1.8) lb for quetiapine respectively. In women, greater weight gain occurred during risperidone treatment compared with quetiapine treatment. By week 52, increases in BMI >or=1 unit occurred with significantly higher frequency in olanzapine-treated patients compared with quetiapine- or risperidone-treated patients. By 52 weeks, treatment-emergent metabolic syndrome was reported in 51 individuals (13.4% of the total population), of whom 22 were receiving olanzapine, 18 quetiapine, and 11 risperidone. Risperidone was associated with the smallest elevations in triglyceride and total cholesterol levels.
Conclusion: Weight gain and metabolic syndrome occur commonly even in young patients receiving antipsychotic treatment for early psychosis. Targeted interventions are therefore warranted from the onset of antipsychotic therapy.