The human selenoproteome: recent insights into functions and regulation

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009 Aug;66(15):2457-78. doi: 10.1007/s00018-009-0032-4. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Abstract

Selenium (Se) is a nutritional trace mineral essential for various aspects of human health that exerts its effects mainly through its incorporation into selenoproteins as the amino acid, selenocysteine. Twenty-five selenoprotein genes have been identified in humans and several selenoproteins are broadly classified as antioxidant enzymes. As progress is made on characterizing the individual members of this protein family, however, it is becoming clear that their properties and functions are quite diverse. This review summarizes recent insights into properties of individual selenoproteins such as tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and regulation of expression. Also discussed are potential roles the different selenoproteins play in human health and disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / genetics
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Iodide Peroxidase / genetics
  • Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Isoenzymes / genetics
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Proteome / genetics
  • Proteome / metabolism*
  • Selenium / metabolism
  • Selenoproteins* / chemistry
  • Selenoproteins* / genetics
  • Selenoproteins* / metabolism
  • Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase / genetics
  • Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase / metabolism

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Isoenzymes
  • Proteome
  • Selenoproteins
  • Iodide Peroxidase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Thioredoxin-Disulfide Reductase
  • Selenium