Involvement of the nucleolus in replication of human viruses

Rev Med Virol. 2009 Jul;19(4):201-14. doi: 10.1002/rmv.614.


Viruses are intracellular pathogens that have to usurp some of the cellular machineries to provide an optimal environment for their own replication. An increasing number of reports reveal that many viruses induce modifications of nuclear substructures including nucleoli, whether they replicate or not in the nucleus of infected cells. Indeed, during infection of cells with various types of human viruses, nucleoli undergo important morphological modifications. A large number of viral components traffic to and from the nucleolus where they interact with different cellular and/or viral factors, numerous host nucleolar proteins are redistributed in other cell compartments or are modified and some cellular proteins are delocalized in the nucleolus of infected cells. Well-documented studies have established that several of these nucleolar modifications play a role in some steps of the viral cycle, and also in fundamental cellular pathways. The nucleolus itself is the place where several essential steps of the viral cycle take place. In other cases, viruses divert host nucleolar proteins from their known functions in order to exert new unexpected role(s).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cell Nucleolus / physiology
  • Cell Nucleolus / virology*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions
  • Humans
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Virulence
  • Virus Diseases / genetics
  • Virus Diseases / virology*
  • Virus Replication*
  • Viruses / growth & development*
  • Viruses / metabolism
  • Viruses / pathogenicity