Water pipe smoking and health-related quality of life: a population-based study

Arch Iran Med. 2009 May;12(3):232-7.


Background: Water pipe smoking is increasing in Eastern Mediterranean Region. The objective of this study was to investigate any relationship between water pipe smoking and health-related quality of life in the general population of Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Methods: Using a multistage sampling method, a random sample of 1675 individuals aged 15 years and over was studied from June through July 2007. All eligible participants were interviewed using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire and a short questionnaire containing items regarding socio-demographic characteristics and water pipe smoking status. To compare SF-36 scores between water pipe smokers and nonsmokers, t-test was performed. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of water pipe smoking on SF-36 scores after adjusting for other independent variables.

Results: In all, 1675 individuals were studied. The mean age of the respondents was 42.1 (SD=16.5) years. One hundred and seventy-two participants (10.4%) were water pipe smokers. There were statistically significant differences between water pipe smokers and nonsmokers on all scales except for role emotional (P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that using water pipe was a risk factor for decreasing Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores [OR (95% CI): 2.15 (1.56-2.96), P<0.01; and OR (95% CI): 1.88 (1.36-2.60), P<0.01, respectively].

Conclusion: The study findings indicated that people who smoked water pipe carried a higher risk for poorer health-related quality of life.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Population Surveillance / methods*
  • Prevalence
  • Quality of Life*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Distribution
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Young Adult