The feeding of cholesterol to rats resulted in marked alterations in the type and distribution of the plasma lipoproteins and their apoproteins. The hyperlipoproteinemia was characterized by an increase in the d < 1.006 lipoproteins (B-VLDL and VLDL), an increase in the intermediate and low density lipoproteins (LDL), and the appearance of HDL(c). Associated with these lipoproteins was a prominence of the arginine-rich apoprotein. The high density lipoproteins (HDL) were decreased. A two-dimensional immunoelectrophoretic procedure was adapted to quantitate the changes in distribution of the arginine-rich apoprotein in the plasma and various ultracentrifugal fractions obtained from control and cholesterol-fed rats. In rats fed the cholesterol diet, the total plasma arginine-rich apoprotein increased from a control value of approximately 29 mg/dl to 47 mg/dl. The method of ultracentrifugation, however, was found to markedly alter the quantitative results. When the 60 Ti rotor was used at maximum speed to isolate the ultracentrifugal fractions, less than 50% of the total plasma arginine-rich apoprotein was associated with the lipoproteins in the d < 1.006 or the d 1.006-1.02, 1.02-1.063, or 1.063-1.21 ultracentrifugal fractions. By contrast, after limited ultracentrifugation with the 40 rotor, much less arginine-rich apoprotein was lost, with approximately 20% of the arginine-rich apoprotein in control rats and 10% in cholesterol-fed rats found in the d > 1.21 fraction. Significant alterations in the arginine-rich apoprotein quantitation notwithstanding, the observations of increased arginine-rich apoprotein in the B-VLDL, intermediate fraction, and HDL(c) following cholesterol feeding remained valid. However, precise quantitation awaits refinements in lipoprotein isolation techniques.