Parathyroid hormone 2 receptor and its endogenous ligand tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues are concentrated in endocrine, viscerosensory and auditory brain regions in macaque and human

Neuroscience. 2009 Aug 4;162(1):128-47. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.04.054. Epub 2009 May 3.


Parathyroid hormone receptor 2 (PTH2R) and its ligand, tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues (TIP39) constitute a neuromodulator system implicated in endocrine and nociceptive regulation. We now describe the presence and distribution of the PTH2R and TIP39 in the brain of primates using a range of tissues and ages from macaque and human brain. In situ hybridization histochemistry of TIP39 mRNA, studied in young macaque brain, due to its possible decline beyond late postnatal ages, was present only in the thalamic subparafascicular area and the pontine medial paralemniscal nucleus. In contrast, in situ hybridization histochemistry in macaque identified high levels of PTH2R expression in the central amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area, hypothalamic paraventricular and periventricular nuclei, medial geniculate, and the pontine tegmentum. PTH2R mRNA was also detected in several human brain areas by RT-PCR. The distribution of PTH2R-immunoreactive fibers in human, determined by immunocytochemistry, was similar to that in rodents, including dense fiber networks in the medial preoptic area, hypothalamic paraventricular, periventricular and infundibular (arcuate) nuclei, lateral hypothalamic area, median eminence, thalamic paraventricular nucleus, periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, sensory trigeminal nuclei, medullary dorsal reticular nucleus, and dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Co-localization suggested that PTH2R fibers are glutamatergic, and that TIP39 may directly influence hypophysiotropic somatostatin containing and indirectly influence corticotropin releasing-hormone containing neurons. The results demonstrate that TIP39 and the PTH2R are expressed in the brain of primates in locations that suggest involvement in regulation of fear, anxiety, reproductive behaviors, release of pituitary hormones, and nociception.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Brain / growth & development*
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Child
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Somatostatin / metabolism
  • Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2 / metabolism


  • Neuropeptides
  • Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 2
  • Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2
  • tuberoinfundibular peptide 39
  • Somatostatin
  • Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone