It is important to have accurate knowledge of the range of cancers associated with various CHEK2 mutations, and of the lifetime risks of cancer associated with each. We wished to establish the relationship between family history, mutation type and cancer risk in families with a CHEK2 mutation. We obtained a blood sample and pedigree information from 2012 unselected women with breast cancer, from 2007 men with prostate cancer and from 1934 patients with colon cancer, from hospitals throughout Poland. Genetic testing was carried out for four founder CHEK2 mutations on all 5953 specimens and 533 carriers were identified. We estimated the risk to age 75 for any cancer in the 2544 first-degree relatives to be 22.3%. After adjusting for mutation type, the risk of breast cancer was much higher among relatives of probands with breast cancer than among relatives of patients with prostate or colon cancer (HR=3.6; 95% CI=2.1-6.2; P=0.0001). Similarly, the risk of prostate cancer was higher among relatives of probands with prostate cancer than among relatives of patients with breast or colon cancer (HR=4.4; 95% CI=2.2-8.7; P=0.0001) and the risk of colon cancer was higher among relatives of probands with colon cancer than among relatives of patients with prostate or breast cancer (HR=4.2; 95% CI=2.4-7.8; P=0.0001). These analyses suggest that the risk of cancer in a carrier of a CHEK2 mutation is dependent on the family history of cancer.