Evaluation of homology modeling of G-protein-coupled receptors in light of the A(2A) adenosine receptor crystallographic structure

J Med Chem. 2009 May 28;52(10):3284-92. doi: 10.1021/jm801533x.


Homology modeling of the human A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) based on bovine rhodopsin predicted a protein structure that was very similar to the recently determined crystallographic structure. The discrepancy between the experimentally observed orientation of the antagonist and those obtained by previous antagonist docking is related to the loop structure of rhodopsin being carried over to the model of the A(2A) AR and was rectified when the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor was used as a template for homology modeling. Docking of the triazolotriazine antagonist ligand ZM241385 1 was greatly improved by including water molecules of the X-ray structure or by using a constraint from mutagenesis. Automatic agonists docking to both a new homology modeled receptor and the A(2A) AR crystallographic structure produced similar results. Heterocyclic nitrogen atoms closely corresponded when the docked adenine moiety of agonists and 1 were overlaid. The cumulative mutagenesis data, which support the proposed mode of agonist docking, can be reexamined in light of the crystallographic structure. Thus, homology modeling of GPCRs remains a useful technique in probing the structure of the protein and predicting modes of ligand docking.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists
  • Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Computer Simulation*
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular*
  • Mutagenesis
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Conformation
  • Receptor, Adenosine A2A / chemistry*
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / agonists
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / chemistry*
  • Rhodopsin / agonists
  • Rhodopsin / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Rhodopsin / chemistry
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonists
  • Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists
  • Receptor, Adenosine A2A
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • Rhodopsin