The production of pure silver in nanoparticle size has opened new dimensions in the clinical use of this precious metal. We and others have demonstrated previously that silver nanoparticles (nAg) possess efficient antimicrobial activity. Herein we show they may also have significant anti-inflammatory effects in a postoperative peritoneal adhesion model. This finding provides further insight into the biological actions of nAg as well as a potentially novel therapy for peritoneal adhesions in clinical surgery.With the advent of nanoscience, pure silver can now be made into nanometer-sized particles. As a result, we are able to explore the potentially beneficial properties of pure silver. In our previous study using a burn wound model in mice, we demonstrated that besides antibacterial action, silver nanoparticles (nAg) appear to have anti-inflammatory properties. Herein we further confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of nAg and explore their potential clinical application through a postoperative peritoneal adhesion model. We also elucidate the potential mechanism of action of silver. Our in vitro and in vivo experimental findings show that nAg are effective at decreasing inflammation in peritoneal adhesions without significant toxic effects. This study thus provides further evidence for and contributes to the understanding of the anti-inflammatory properties of nAg and may also give a novel therapeutic direction for the prevention of postoperative adhesions.