Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is a debilitating infection that is being increasingly recognized in livestock worldwide. Several treponeme phylotypes have been identified in BDD lesions, although only a single BDD-associated treponeme taxon (Treponema brennaborense) has been proposed thus far. In a previous study, we observed that four BDD-associated spirochaete isolates formed a distinct phylogenetic cluster on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and shared less than 97 % sequence similarity with recognized treponeme species. Further characterization of these isolates on the basis of growth characteristics, flaB2 gene sequences, enzyme profiles and cell morphology confirmed that they formed a coherent taxonomic group displaying marked genotypic and phenotypic differences with respect to recognized treponeme species. The four novel isolates displayed a novel 3 : 6 : 3 flagellar pattern rather than the 2 : 4 : 2 pattern shown by their closest relatives and exhibited esterase C4, esterase lipase C8, trypsin and chymotrypsin enzyme activities. Therefore these four new isolates represent a novel species of the genus Treponema, for which the name Treponema pedis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T3552B(T) (=DSM 18691(T)=NCTC 13403(T)).