The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in the growth and development of cells and has been implicated in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Gene expression profiling studies on limited numbers of specimens have shown high expression of IGF2, encoding the activating ligand for this system, in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and in synovial sarcomas. This data may have concrete clinical implications, as several reports exist of patients with GISTs suffering from severe hypoglycemia, a predicted effect of IGF2. Furthermore, new drugs targeting IGF signaling are entering clinical trials. The purpose of this study is to survey IGF2 expression at the protein level on a broad number of mesenchymal tumors representing all major diagnostic classes. By immunostaining tissue microarrays, results were obtained for 51 diagnostic categories of bone and soft-tissue tumors representing 1288 cases. Distinct membranous and/or cytoplasmic IGF2 immunoreactivity was assessed according to published criteria. Solitary fibrous tumors had the highest expression. Of 20 tumor types represented by more than 10 cases, synovial sarcomas, myxoid liposarcomas, GISTs, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, chondrosarcomas, undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (MFH), Ewing's sarcomas and tenosynovial giant cell tumors showed high levels of expression in more than 20% of cases. Of the 445 GIST cases with clinical information, those with high expression of IGF2 had a significantly worse outcome than those with low or no expression. IGF2 protein expression among mesenchymal tumors is largely consistent with gene expression studies and suggests a potential for molecular therapy targeting the IGF signaling pathway system in these neoplasms.