Extraintestinal manifestations develop in ≈25% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Musculoskeletal symptoms are the most common extraintestinal manifestations of IBD, often associated with colonic involvement, and present as either articular (arthritis) or periarticular inflammation including enthesitis, myositis, or soft tissue rheumatism (fibromyalgia). Musculoskeletal manifestations can precede or be synchronous with the development of bowel disease or develop following the diagnosis of IBD. Their clinical course often correlates with IBD activity but it can also be independent of the activity of bowel disease. Controlling intestinal inflammation remains the cornerstone therapeutic approach for the musculoskeletal manifestations of IBD.
Copyright © 2009 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.