Objective: To evaluate the potential anti-tumor activity of zoledronate-activated Vgamma9gammadelta T cells in vivo, we initiated a pilot study involving administration of zoledronate-activated Vgamma9gammadelta T lymphocyte-activated killer (LAK) cells to patients with multiple myeloma.
Materials and methods: Subjects (n = 6) received four intravenous infusions at 2-week intervals of zoledronate-activated Vgamma9gammadelta T LAK cells generated from the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence of zoledronate and interleukin-2. If the M-protein level in the patient's serum remained at baseline following four intravenous infusions, the patient underwent four more treatments at 4-week intervals. Subjects (n = 6) received a median of 0.99 x 10(9) Vgamma9gammadelta T LAK cells per infusion.
Results: No serious treatment-related adverse effects were observed during the study period. The percentage of Vgamma9gammadelta T cells in PBMCs and absolute numbers of Vgamma9gammadelta T cells in peripheral blood, particularly those of CD45RA(-)CD27(-) effector memory (TEM) Vgamma9gammadelta T-cell subsets increased in all the patients. Percentages of Vgamma9gammadelta T cells and TEM Vgamma9gammadelta T cells in bone marrow also increased in all the patients so far tested. M-protein levels in the serum remained at baseline in four of six patients and increased in two of six patients. Soluble major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related antigen A was detected only in the serum of patients whose M-protein level increased.
Conclusion: Administration of zoledronate-activated Vgamma9gammadelta T LAK cells is a safe and promising immunotherapy approach for treatment of patients with multiple myeloma.