Multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the OARSI/OMERACT measure of intermittent and constant osteoarthritis pain (ICOAP)

Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2009 Oct;17(10):1293-6. doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2009.04.003. Epub 2009 Apr 17.


Aim: To conduct a multi-language translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Intermittent and Constant OsteoArthritis Pain (ICOAP) questionnaire for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: The questionnaires were translated and cross-culturally adapted in parallel, using a common protocol, into the following languages: Czech, Dutch, French (France), German, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish (Castillan), North and Central American Spanish, Swedish. The process was conducted following five steps: (1)--independent translation into the target language by two or three persons; (2)--consensus meeting to obtain a single preliminary translated version; (3)--backward translation by an independent bilingual native English speaker, blinded to the English original version; (4)--final version produced by a multidisciplinary consensus committee; (5)--pre-testing of the final version with 10-20 target-language-native hip and knee OA patients.

Results: The process could be followed and completed in all countries. Only slight differences were identified in the structure of the sentences between the original and the translated versions. A large majority of the patients felt that the questionnaire was easy to understand and complete. Only a few minor criticisms were expressed. Moreover, a majority of patients found the concepts of constant pain and pain that comes and goes to be of a great pertinence and were very happy with the distinction.

Conclusion: The ICOAP questionnaire is now available for multi-center international studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Cultural Comparison*
  • Humans
  • Language
  • Osteoarthritis, Hip / diagnosis*
  • Osteoarthritis, Knee / diagnosis*
  • Pain Measurement*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Translations*