Ultrasound assisted enhancement in natural dye extraction from beetroot for industrial applications and natural dyeing of leather

Ultrason Sonochem. 2009 Aug;16(6):782-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2009.03.009. Epub 2009 Mar 28.


There is a growing demand for eco-friendly/non-toxic colorants, specifically for health sensitive applications such as coloration of food and dyeing of child textile/leather garments. Recently, dyes derived from natural sources for these applications have emerged as an important alternative to potentially harmful synthetic dyes and pose need for suitable effective extraction methodologies. The present paper focus on the influence of process parameters for ultrasound assisted leaching of coloring matter from plant materials. In the present work, extraction of natural dye from beetroot using ultrasound has been studied and compared with static/magnetic stirring as a control process at 45 degrees C. The influence of process parameters on the extraction efficiency such as ultrasonic output power, time, pulse mode, effect of solvent system and amount of beetroot has been studied. The use of ultrasound is found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of colorant obtained from beetroot. Based on the experiments it has been found that a mixture of 1:1 ethanol-water with 80W ultrasonic power for 3h contact time provided better yield and extraction efficiency. Pulse mode operation may be useful in reducing electrical energy consumption in the extraction process. The effect of the amount of beetroot used in relation to extraction efficiency has also been studied. Two-stage extraction has been studied and found to be beneficial for improving the yield for higher amounts of beetroot. Significant 8% enhancement in % yield of colorant has been achieved with ultrasound, 80W as compared to MS process both using 1:1 ethanol-water. The coloring ability of extracted beet dye has been tested on substrates such as leather and paper and found to be suitable for dyeing. Ultrasound is also found to be beneficial in natural dyeing of leather with improved rate of exhaustion. Both the dyed substrates have better color values for ultrasonic beet extract as inferred from reflectance measurement. Therefore, the present study clearly offers efficient extraction methodology from natural dye resources such as beetroot with ultrasound even dispensing with external heating. Thereby, also making eco-friendly non-toxic dyeing of fibrous substances a potential viable option.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Beta vulgaris / chemistry*
  • Biological Products / chemistry
  • Biological Products / isolation & purification*
  • Clothing*
  • Color
  • Coloring Agents / chemistry
  • Coloring Agents / isolation & purification*
  • Green Chemistry Technology / economics
  • Green Chemistry Technology / methods*
  • Magnetics
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Solvents / chemistry
  • Tanning / methods*
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonics*


  • Biological Products
  • Coloring Agents
  • Solvents