Our aim was to determine whether a Vaccinium myrtillus (bilberry) anthocyanoside (VMA) and/or its main anthocyanidin constituents (cyanidin, delphinidin, and malvidin) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) against retinal damage in vitro and in vivo. In RGC cultures (RGC-5, a rat ganglion cell-line transformed using E1A virus) in vitro, cell damage and radical activation were induced by 3-(4-morpholinyl) sydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1, a peroxynitrite donor). Cell viability was measured using a water-soluble tetrazolium salt assay. Intracellular radical activation within RGC-5 cells was evaluated using 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester (CM-H(2)DCFDA). Lipid peroxidation was assessed using the supernatant fraction of mouse forebrain homogenates. In mice in vivo, we evaluated the effects of VMA on N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced retinal damage using hematoxylin-eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) stainings. VMA and all three anthocyanidins (i) significantly inhibited SIN-1-induced neurotoxicity and radical activation in RGC-5, (ii) concentration-dependently inhibited lipid peroxidation in mouse forebrain homogenates. Intravitreously injected VMA significantly inhibited the NMDA-induced morphological retinal damage and increase in TUNEL-positive cells in the ganglion cell layer. Thus, VMA and its anthocyanidins have neuroprotective effects (exerted at least in part via an anti-oxidation mechanism) in these in vitro and in vivo models of retinal diseases.