Characteristics, formation, and pathophysiology of glucosepane: a major protein cross-link

Rejuvenation Res. 2009 Apr;12(2):137-48. doi: 10.1089/rej.2009.0846.


Advanced glycation end products are the results of a series of chemical reactions collectively known as the Maillard reaction, or nonenzymatic glycation, and sometimes cross-link proteins, thereby impairing their normal function. Glucosepane is the most abundant protein cross-link found in vivo so far and mainly has been shown to accumulate in the extracellular matrix, where it cross-links collagen. Levels of glucosepane increase with aging. By increasing collagen stiffness, glucosepane cross-links may have significant implications in several age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although the formation pathways for glucosepane are relatively well researched, much is still unknown about the accumulation and pathophysiology of glucosepane.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Collagen / chemistry
  • Collagen / metabolism*
  • Cross-Linking Reagents / metabolism*
  • Disease*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / chemistry
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism*
  • Humans


  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • glucosepane
  • Collagen
  • Glucose