Lineage-priming is a molecular model of stem cell (SC) differentiation in which proliferating SCs express a subset of genes associated to the differentiation pathways to which they can commit. This concept has been developed for hematopoietic SCs, but has been poorly studied for other SC populations. Because the differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM MSCs) remains controversial, we have explored the theory of lineage-priming applied to these cells. We show that proliferating primary layers and clones of BM MSCs have precise priming to the osteoblastic (O), chondrocytic (C), adipocytic (A), and the vascular smooth muscle (V) lineages, but not to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, hematopoietic, hepatocytic, or neural lineages. Priming was shown both at the mRNA (300 transcripts were evaluated) and the protein level. In particular, the master transactivator proteins PPARG, RUNX2, and SOX9 were coexpressed before differentiation induction in all cells from incipient clones. We further show that MSCs cultured in the presence of inducers differentiate into the lineages for which they are primed. Our data point out to a number of signaling pathways that might be activated in proliferating MSCs and would be responsible for the differentiation and proliferation potential of these cells. Our results extend the notion of lineage-priming and provide the molecular framework for inter-A, -O, -C, -V plasticity of BM MSCs. Our data highlight the use of BM MSCs for the cell therapy of skeletal or vascular disorders, but provide a word of caution about their use in other clinical indications.