Our objective was to study the gross genomic alterations in serous borderline tumors and serous adenocarcinomas of the ovary. A retrospective analysis of 245 serous borderline tumors and 62 serous adenocarcinomas from 249 patients was performed using high-resolution image cytometric DNA ploidy analysis. DNA ploidy status, S-phase fraction, and DNA index were evaluated. The majority of serous borderline tumors were diploid (225/245 cases, 92%). The remaining 8% showed an aneuploid peak predominantly with DNA index of less than 1.4. Grades 2 and 3 serous adenocarcinomas were more often (80%) nondiploid, mostly with DNA index exceeding 1.4. Grade 1 serous adenocarcinomas were an intermediate group, more similar to serous borderline tumors. The S-phase fraction increased from serous borderline tumors (mean = 0.6%) through grade 1 serous adenocarcinomas (mean = 2.8%), being highest in grades 2 and 3 adenocarcinomas (mean = 6.8%). Our findings support the hypothesis that serous borderline tumors and grades 2 and 3 serous adenocarcinomas are genomically different lesions, with grade 1 serous adenocarcinomas being an intermediate group more close to borderline tumors.