Substitution of vegetable oil for a partially-hydrogenated fat favorably alters cardiovascular disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women

Atherosclerosis. 2009 Nov;207(1):208-12. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2009.03.039. Epub 2009 Apr 5.


Objective: Compared to vegetable oils in their unmodified state, partially-hydrogenated fat is associated with less favorable effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Acceptable alternatives must be adjudicated. Our objective was to assess the effect of a recent commercial fat substitution, corn oil for partially-hydrogenated soybean oil.

Methods: Using a double-blind cross-over design, 30 postmenopausal women >or=50 years with LDL-cholesterol concentrations >or=120 mg/dL were randomly assigned to each of two 35-day phases; all food and beverage was provided to maintain body weight. Corn or partially-hydrogenated soybean oil was incorporated throughout the diet and contributed two-thirds of fat. Primary outcomes included fasting and non-fasting lipid, lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, and fasting high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations; secondary outcomes included fasting small dense LDL (sdLDL)-cholesterol, remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RemLC), glycated albumin, adiponectin and immunoreactive insulin concentrations, and endogenous cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activities.

Results: Relative to the partially-hydrogenated soybean oil enriched diet, the corn oil enriched diet resulted in lower fasting total cholesterol (7%; P<0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (10%; P<0.0001), VLDL-cholesterol (7%; P=0.052), apo B (9%; P<0.0001), lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] (5%; P=0.024), sdLDL-cholesterol (17%; P=0.001), and RemLC (20%; P=0.007) concentrations, and no significant effect on the other outcomes. Changes in postprandial (4-h post-meal) lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein concentrations were similar to the fasting state.

Conclusion: The replacement of partially-hydrogenated soybean oil with corn oil favorably affects a range of CVD risk factors and is an appropriate option to decrease cardiovascular disease risk factors in moderately hypercholesterolemic individuals.

Trial registration: NCT00175071.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Aged
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / blood
  • Apolipoproteins B / blood
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, VLDL / blood
  • Corn Oil / administration & dosage*
  • Corn Oil / adverse effects
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Fasting / blood
  • Female
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Humans
  • Hydrogenation
  • Hypercholesterolemia / blood
  • Hypercholesterolemia / complications
  • Hypercholesterolemia / diet therapy*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Postmenopause*
  • Serum Albumin / metabolism
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Soybean Oil / administration & dosage*
  • Soybean Oil / adverse effects
  • Sterol O-Acyltransferase / blood
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triglycerides / blood


  • ADIPOQ protein, human
  • APOA1 protein, human
  • Adiponectin
  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Apolipoproteins B
  • Biomarkers
  • CETP protein, human
  • Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Cholesterol, VLDL
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Insulin
  • Serum Albumin
  • Triglycerides
  • glycated serum albumin
  • Soybean Oil
  • Corn Oil
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Sterol O-Acyltransferase

Associated data