Relationship between fluoride intake in Serbian children living in two areas with different natural levels of fluorides and occurrence of dental fluorosis

Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Jun;47(6):1080-4. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2009.01.038.


The amount of fluoride present naturally in drinking water is highly variable, being dependent upon the individual geological environment from which the water is obtained. Chronic exposure to exceeding fluoride doses induces set of toxic effects, i.e. fluorosis. The aim of this study was to examine fluoride content in water and in the most frequently used vegetables, potato and bean, grown in two different Serbian regions, i.e. control region (Valjevo) and high naturally occurring fluoride region (Vranjska Banja), and moreover, to correlate estimated daily intake with dental fluorosis occurrence as an adverse effect of fluoride exposure of schoolchildren in Serbia. Study confirmed significant difference in fluoride content in water, potato and bean, consumed by 12-year-old children in two investigated municipalities. Results of the study indicated positive and statistically significant correlation between daily intake of fluoride and dental fluorosis level in the fluorotic municipality of Vranjska Banja (r = 0.61; p = 0.000017). Obtained relationship could be evaluated by means of binary logistic regression analysis, whereas probability for fluorosis occurrence could be predicted using the following equation: fluorosis occurence (%) = (34.852 x Cwater -12.644 x Cpotato - 9.362 x Cbean - 7.673) x 100 (Chi-Square (3) = 33.033; p < 0.001).

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Child
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Fabaceae / chemistry
  • Female
  • Fluorides / adverse effects*
  • Fluorides / analysis*
  • Fluorosis, Dental / epidemiology*
  • Food Analysis
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Serbia / epidemiology
  • Solanum tuberosum / chemistry
  • Water Supply / analysis*


  • Fluorides