Heterogeneity of systemic inflammatory responses to periodontal therapy

J Clin Periodontol. 2009 Apr;36(4):287-94. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2009.01382.x. Epub 2009 Mar 11.


Aims: We investigated the effect of comprehensive periodontal therapy on the levels of multiple systemic inflammatory biomarkers.

Material and methods: Thirty patients with severe periodontitis received comprehensive periodontal therapy within a 6-week period. Blood samples were obtained at: 1-week pre-therapy (T1), therapy initiation (T2), treatment completion (T3), and 4 weeks thereafter (T4). We assessed the plasma concentrations of 19 biomarkers using multiplex assays, and serum IgG antibodies to periodontal bacteria using checkerboard immunoblotting. At T2 and T4, dental plaque samples were analysed using checkerboard hybridizations.

Results: At T3, PAI-1, sE-selectin, sVCAM-1, MMP-9, myeloperoxidase, and a composite summary inflammatory score (SIS) were significantly reduced. However, only sE-selectin, sICAM, and serum amyloid P sustained a reduction at T4. Responses were highly variable: analyses of SIS slopes between baseline and T4 showed that approximately 1/3 and 1/4 of the patients experienced a marked reduction and a pronounced increase in systemic inflammation, respectively, while the remainder were seemingly unchanged. Changes in inflammatory markers correlated poorly with clinical, microbiological and serological markers of periodontitis.

Conclusions: Periodontal therapy resulted in an overall reduction of systemic inflammation, but the responses were inconsistent across subjects and largely not sustainable. The determinants of this substantial heterogeneity need to be explored further.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / blood
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / blood
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / surgery
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / therapy
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood*
  • Dental Plaque / microbiology
  • Dental Scaling
  • E-Selectin / blood
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Inflammation Mediators / blood*
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood
  • Interleukins / blood
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Hygiene / education
  • Periodontitis / blood*
  • Periodontitis / surgery
  • Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Peroxidase / blood
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 / blood
  • Prospective Studies
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component / analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood
  • Young Adult


  • Adiponectin
  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • E-Selectin
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Interleukins
  • Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1
  • Serum Amyloid P-Component
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • C-Reactive Protein
  • Peroxidase
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9