Image-guided surgery is being increasingly used in craniomaxillofacial tumor surgery, trauma surgery, orthognathic surgery, and implant surgery. Compared with conventional procedure, treatment planning is performed on the computer based on previously obtained 3-dimensional imaging data, and the surgical procedure is carried out under guidance of a surgical navigation system. Accuracy is of vital importance for the clinical application of this sophisticated technology. All errors are integrative and depend on many factors, including image modality, registration technique, tracking technology, and application type. Knowledge of errors and error management is important to understand the possibilities and limitations of different image-guided surgical approaches. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on the different errors and error management strategies in image-guided craniomaxillofacial surgery.