Hypertension and cardiac failure in its various forms

Med Clin North Am. 2009 May;93(3):665-80. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2009.02.005.


Hypertension clearly increases the risk of systolic or diastolic heart failure. With aging population and advancements in treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of heart failure is ever-increasing and is a principal cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treating hypertension has been shown to decrease the risk of development of heart failure and hence underscores the early recognition and treatment of hypertension and hypertensive heart disease. Antihypertensive treatment with drugs from all classes except direct vasodilators is effective in reversing LVH and preventing heart failure. Also, all of the major classes of antihypertensive drugs, particularly beta-blockers and RAS antagonists, with the exception of calcium antagonists, have been shown to improve survival in patients who have LV systolic dysfunction. However, phenotyping and identifying the pathophysiology and appropriate treatments for patients who have diastolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction has been a daunting task. At this time, treatment of these patients is largely empiric, focusing on BP control, and treating or avoiding intravascular volume overload.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Heart Failure, Diastolic / drug therapy
  • Heart Failure, Diastolic / etiology
  • Heart Failure, Diastolic / physiopathology*
  • Heart Failure, Diastolic / prevention & control
  • Heart Failure, Systolic / drug therapy
  • Heart Failure, Systolic / etiology
  • Heart Failure, Systolic / physiopathology*
  • Heart Failure, Systolic / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke Volume


  • Antihypertensive Agents