Effect of salt supplementation on amphotericin B nephrotoxicity

Kidney Int. 1991 Aug;40(2):302-8. doi: 10.1038/ki.1991.214.


It has been suggested that salt loading protects against amphotericin B-induced nephrotoxicity. The influence of saline loading on the nephrotoxic response to amphotericin B (50 mg/dose given i.v. over 4 hr 3 X/week for 10 weeks) was assessed in two groups of ten patients each who were diagnosed with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients were randomized to receive either 1 liter of 0.9% saline or 1 liter of 5% dextrose in water, administered i.v. over one hour in a double-blinded manner, directly prior to amphotericin B administration. Renal function was monitored on a weekly basis two days after the last dose of amphotericin B. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups except for a slightly higher serum creatinine concentration (Cr) in the saline group (0.8 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.04 mg/dl). Baseline sodium (Na) excretion was relatively high (262 +/- 23 mmol/day in the dextrose group and 224 +/- 17 mmol/day in the saline group). None of the patients sustained an increase in Cr to values greater than 1.7 mg/dl. Although mean Cr remained within normal, there was a significant difference between the two groups over the ten week period, with the dextrose group sustaining a significant increase in Cr and the saline group remaining unchanged. Serum potassium (K) levels fell in both groups necessitating oral K supplementation. The saline group required significantly greater amounts of K supplementation to maintain a normal serum K. Amphotericin B caused a rapid reduction in the acidification ability of the kidney in response to an ammonium chloride load. Under these conditions, the saline group had a poorer ability to acidify the urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Amphotericin B / adverse effects
  • Amphotericin B / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Amphotericin B / metabolism
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / physiopathology
  • Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous / blood
  • Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous / drug therapy
  • Middle Aged
  • Potassium / blood
  • Sodium Chloride / administration & dosage*


  • Sodium Chloride
  • Amphotericin B
  • Creatinine
  • Potassium