Influenza vaccination is recommended for people with chronic bronchitis (CB) because they have a higher risk of influenza-related complications, hospitalizations, and death during seasonal influenza epidemics. This study sought to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage among adults with CB and analyze the factors (predictors) linked to compliance with vaccination recommendations. Individual data from adults aged > or = 40 years included in the Spanish Health Survey conducted in 2006 were used. Subjects were classified as chronic bronchitis sufferers if they answered affirmatively to the question: "has your doctor told you that you are currently suffering from chronic bronchitis?". To assess influenza vaccination status we used the question, "did you have a flu shot in the latest campaign?". Independent variables analyzed included sociodemographic, health-related variables, self-reported presence of other concomitant chronic diseases, and use of health-care services. The percentage of subjects who were reported to be suffering from CB was 6.6% (N=1320, 95% CI 6.2-6.9%). The influenza vaccination coverage among CB sufferers was 63.6% compared with 48.6% for nonsufferers (p<0.05). The predictors significantly associated with a higher likelihood of receiving the vaccine among adult CB sufferers were: higher age; male gender; nonsmoker or ex-smoker status; doing physical exercise; and suffering from concomitant asthma or diabetes. We conclude that influenza vaccination coverages among Spanish adults suffering from CB are below desirable levels; thereby making it necessary for strategies to be implemented aimed at improving the use of influenza vaccine among such patients.