Endurance exercise is known to provide cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial injury, and mitochondrial adaptations may play a critical role in this protection. To investigate exercise-induced changes in mitochondrial proteins, we compared the proteome of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria isolated from the myocardium of sedentary (control) and exercise-trained Sprague-Dawley rats. To achieve this goal, we utilized isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation, which allows simultaneous identification and quantification of proteins between multiple samples. This approach identified a total of 222 cardiac mitochondrial proteins. Importantly, repeated bouts of endurance exercise resulted in significant alterations in 11 proteins within intermyofibrillar mitochondria (seven increased; four decreased) compared with sedentary control animals. Furthermore, exercise training resulted in significant changes in two proteins within subsarcolemmal mitochondria (one increased; one decreased) compared with sedentary control animals. Differentially expressed proteins could be classified into seven functional groups, and several novel and potentially important cardioprotective mediators were identified. We conclude that endurance exercise induces alterations in mitochondrial proteome that may contribute to cardioprotective phenotype. Importantly, based on our findings, pharmacological or other interventions could be used to develop a strategy of protecting the myocardium during an ischemic attack.