The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of underwear made of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) fiber in children with atopic dermatitis (AD). Twenty-one AD children (11 EVOH group and 10 control group) were studied for 4 weeks. Their AD severity based on the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) score and physiological functions were assessed. The objective SCORAD significantly decreased in both groups. However, the SCORAD score (P<0.01) and urinary cortisol levels (P<0.05) were decreased only in EVOH group. It was concluded that EVOH fiber underwear might be useful for children with atopic dermatitis.