Aims/hypothesis: This study sought to identify genes and regions in the human genome that are associated with the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg), an important predictor of type 2 diabetes, in Hispanic-American participants from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRAS FS).
Methods: A two-stage genome-wide association scan (GWAS) was performed in IRAS FS Hispanic-American samples. In the first stage, 317K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed in 229 Hispanic-American DNA samples from 34 families from San Antonio, TX, USA. SNPs with the most significant associations with AIRg were genotyped in the entire set of IRAS FS Hispanic-American samples (n = 1,190). In chromosomal regions with evidence of association, additional SNPs were genotyped to capture variation in genes.
Results: No individual SNP achieved genome-wide levels of significance (p < 5 x 10(-7)); however, two regions (chromosomes 6p21 and 20p11) had multiple highly ranked SNPs that were associated with AIRg. Additional genotyping in these regions supported the initial evidence of variants contributing to variation in AIRg. One region resides in a gene desert between PXT1 and KCTD20 on 6p21, while the region on 20p11 has several viable candidate genes (ENTPD6, PYGB, GINS1 and RP4-691N24.1).
Conclusions/interpretation: A GWAS in Hispanic-American samples identified several candidate genes and loci that may be associated with AIRg. These associations explain a small component of variation in AIRg. The genes identified are involved in phosphorylation and ion transport, and provide preliminary evidence that these processes are important in beta cell response.