The polyphenolic phytoalexin resveratrol (RSV) and its analogues have received tremendous attention over the past couple of decades because of a number of reports highlighting their benefits in vitro and in vivo in a variety of human disease models, including cardio- and neuroprotection, immune regulation, and cancer chemoprevention. These studies have underscored the high degree of diversity in terms of the signaling networks and cellular effector mechanisms that are affected by RSV. The activity of RSV has been linked to cell-surface receptors, membrane signaling pathways, intracellular signal-transduction machinery, nuclear receptors, gene transcription, and metabolic pathways. The promise shown by RSV has prompted heightened interest in studies aimed at translating these observations to clinical settings. In this review, we present a comprehensive account of the basic chemistry of RSV, its bioavailability, and its multiple intracellular target proteins and signaling pathways.