The family of mammalian type-I transmembrane receptors containing a Vps10p domain contains five members, Sortilin, SorCS1, SorCS2, SorCS3, and SorLA. The common characteristic of these receptors is an N-terminal Vps10p domain, which either represents the only module of the luminal/extracellular moiety or is combined with additional domains. Family members play roles in protein transport and signal transduction. The individual receptors bind and internalize a variety of ligands, such as neuropeptides and trophic factors, and Sortilin and SorLA mediate trans-Golgi network-to-endosome sorting. Their prominent neuronal expression, several of the identified ligands, and recent results support the notion that members of this receptor family have important functions in neurogenesis, plasticity-related processes, and functional maintenance of the nervous system. For instance, it has been demonstrated that Sortilin partakes in the transduction of proapoptotic effects, and there is converging biochemical and genetic evidence that implies that SorLA is an Alzheimer's disease risk factor.