The purpose of this study is to make an epidemiological description of pulmonary tuberculosis with sputum smear positive in Mali. This is a retrospective study conducted from January 1st, 1995 to December 31st, 2004 by the National Program for fighting against tuberculosis (located at the National Department of health), and where data were centralized. From this ten years period, 33,000 cases of tuberculosis (all forms of TB) have been notified in Mali, which represented an annual rate of 2750. Of those, 22,275 cases (67.5%) were sputum smear positive (with Ziehl Nielsen), this represented 1856 as annual rate. The prevalence of pulmonary TB with sputum smear positive is 185/100,000. During the study period a total of 13,638 (61.22%) cases of 22,275 cases of pulmonary TB with sputum smear positive have been given ant tuberculosis drugs; From these patients under therapy 2371 cases (17.38% ) disappear before the end of treatment.; 5851 cases (42.90%) have been considered as cured; 161 (1.18%) cases of treatment failure and 523 (3.93%) cases of death. The sex-ratio was 3.57 with young adults representing the majority of cases. Pulmonary TB with sputum smear positive treatment remains a challenge for National Programs for fighting against TB as well as its prevention.