Using high molecular-weight proteomic analysis, we previously showed that Staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1 (SND1) is highly expressed in recurrent androgen-insensitive prostate cancer tissues. SND1 is a component of the RNA-induced splicing complex that mediates RNA interference, leading to degradation of specific mRNAs. The objective of this study was to further characterize SND1 expression and to investigate its biological potential in prostate cancer. Radical prostatectomy specimens were obtained from 62 prostate cancer patients. SND1 immunohistochemical staining patterns were evaluated using an in-house polyclonal antibody. We confirmed SND1 mRNA expression in prostate cancer cells using an in situ hybridization technique. To determine the importance of SND1 mRNA, we knocked down SND1 in vitro with small interfering RNA and observed a significant decrease in cell growth. SND1 was expressed in 60 of 62 prostate cancers (97%), appearing in the cytoplasm as small, granular structures; it was also present at high levels in prostate cancer specimens, while in hyperplasia specimens and normal epithelium, it was weakly or negatively expressed. SND1 expression intensity increased with increasing grade and aggressiveness of the cancer. As SND1 mRNA was overexpressed in cancer cells, the growth of these cells was suppressed following SND1 knockdown in vitro, thus representing a promising prostate cancer biomarker and therapeutic target.